Lorem ipsum

read more

Kostoľany pod Tribečom

St George’s Church in Kostoľany pod Tribečom forms an important representative of Central European pre-Romanesque art. The wall paintings in the interior belong not only to the eldest and best preserved in the Slovak Republic, but in the whole of Central Europe.

  • AD 1050 – Modern Era

AD 1050 – Modern Era

Development of the site

The stone church with rectangular presbytery and nave, as well as unique wall paintings in its interior 37 is associated with the period around 1000, more specifically the first decades of the 11th century.38

In the first half of the 13th century the church was renovated, prolonged by an annex with walled gallery for the nobility and a tower. Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 This rebuilding seems to have preserved the wall paintings in the nave, while those in the presbytery were painted over with new ones. From the late-Romanesque interior of the church a small chamber within the southern wall of the annex with a gallery and possibly a stone baptismal font survives. Fig. 27 The original late Romanesque church tower was preserved only to the height of the second and partially third floor.

Fig. 23: St George Church in Kostoľany pod Tribečom. Floor plan of the current state, building phases; black – 1st building phase (end of 10th to mid-11th century); red – 2nd building phase (first half of the 13th century); white – 1960s, survey: Geo-cz Tábor. Credit: Kateřina Vytejčková

Fig. 23: St George Church in Kostoľany pod Tribečom. Floor plan of the current state, building phases; black – 1st building phase (end of 10th to mid-11th century); red – 2nd building phase (first half of the 13th century); white – 1960s, survey: Geo-cz Tábor. Credit: Kateřina Vytejčková

Fig. 24: St George Church. Credit: Peter Baxa

Fig. 24: St George Church. Credit: Peter Baxa

Fig. 25: Interior of the gallery annex at St George Church from the first half of the 13th century. Credit: Anna Valeková

Fig. 25: Interior of the gallery annex at St George Church from the first half of the 13th century. Credit: Sylvie Novotná

Fig. 26: Tower of St George Church, late Romanesque windows marked on the facade. Credit: Peter Baxa

Fig. 26: Tower of St George Church, late Romanesque windows marked on the facade. Credit: Peter Baxa

Fig. 27: Small holy water font in the southern wall of the annex of St George Church from the first half of the 13th century. Credit: Jan Gloc – Martin Frouz

Fig. 27: Small holy water font in the southern wall of the annex of St George Church from the first half of the 13th century. Credit: Jan Gloc – Martin Frouz

Fig. 28: Late Romanesque portal in the southern facade of the gallery annex from the first half of the 13th century. Credit: Peter Baxa

Fig. 28: Late Romanesque portal in the southern facade of the gallery annex from the first half of the 13th century. Credit: Peter Baxa

In the following centuries, St George’s Church underwent further reconstructions caused by technical problems of the building as well its new functions and changes in the liturgical regulations. Evidence of modifications from the 14th–15th centuries are: a cast mortar floor and probably a pastophorium in the northern wall of the presbytery, where liturgical equipment was stored. Archaeological investigations in St George revealed a number of graves of unknown parishioners.

The unsatisfactory state of the building made further reconstructions necessary in the 17th century. It was plastered, the interior was equipped with new wall paintings and the facade revived with white and red sgraffito decoration. Most likely in the course of this reconstruction a new pulpit was erected as well. Fig. 29 Possibly at that time the original gallery was enlarged by two wooden wings and rebuilt into an organ gallery, which was mentioned for the first time in 1713.

Fig. 29: Renaissance pulpit in the St George Church from the 17th century. Credit: Peter Baxa

Fig. 29: Renaissance pulpit in the St George Church from the 17th century. Credit: Peter Baxa

In 1721, another reconstruction of the church took place. The roof was renewed; the wooden ceiling was replaced by a plastered one with stucco decoration, the floor was tiled with bricks and the church painted anew. Over the course of this reconstruction the Romanesque window openings were repaired, as well as the tower, which was heightened and provided with new windows Fig. 30. It is roughly in this state that the church was preserved until the 1950s.39 Fig. 31

Fig. 30: St George Church in 1911. Credit: J. Ernyey, archive of the Ethnographic Museum in Budapest

Fig. 30: St George Church in 1911. Credit: J. Ernyey, archive of the Ethnographic Museum in Budapest

Fig. 31: Interior of the gallery annex of St George Church from the first half of the 13th century, taken in 1958. Credit: The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic

Fig. 31: Interior of the gallery annex of St George Church from the first half of the 13th century, taken in 1958. Credit: The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic

Around St George’s Church a cemetery arose. All burials in its immediate proximity stem from the period after the construction of the pre-Romanesque walled parts. In some cases the graves contained objects that date the beginnings of burials to around AD 1000. Until the 13th century, these graves were usually marked on the surface by raw stone slabs.40

At the beginning, the cemetery occupied only a small area surrounding the church. By the end of the 18th century, it grew to its current extent. The church and cemetery were accessed by a road leading eastwards from the current municipality.41

References

37 Maříková-Kubková , Jana and Berger, Tomáš, ‘První stavební fáze kostela sv. Juraja v Kostoľanech pod Tribečom’, in Monumentorum tutela 21, 2009, pp. 102–151;
Hradilová, Janka, Hradil, David, Kotulánová, Eva and Švarcová, Silvie, ‘Nástěnné malby v Kostoľanech pod Tribečom’, in Monumentorum Tutela 21, 2009, pp. 153–174

38 Baxa, Peter and Maříková-Kubková, Jana, ‘Objev nejstarší fáze kostela sv. Jiří v Kostoľanech pod Tribečom’, in Ranostredoveká sakrálna architektúra Nitrianskeho kraja. Zborník zo seminára a katalóg ku výstave, Nitra 2011, p. 89;
Maříková-Kubková, Jana, ‘Kostel sv. Jiří v Kostoľanech pod Tribečom. Komplexní výzkum jako šance pro budoucnost’, in Živá archeologie. (Re)konstrukce a experiment v archeologii 11, 2010, p. 96

39 Valeková, Anna, ‘K pamiatkovej obnove kostola sv. Juraja’, in Monumentorum Tutela 21, 2009, pp. 183–184

40 Baxa, Peter and Bisták, Peter, ‘Prvé výsledky revízneho archeologického výskumu cintorína pri Kostole sv. Juraja v Kostoľanoch pod Tribečom’, in Monumentorum Tutela 21, 2009, p. 59

41 Ibid, p. 62

Continue to: Modern Era – Today

Development of the site

share print

top ↑