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Ingelheim am Rhein

In Ingelheim Charlemagne built a palace as an important temporary seat of residence and government to kings and emperors mainly of the early Carolingian and Ottonian dynasties. After the recent excavations, a selection of features was preserved in situ, allowing visitors to appreciate them in their historic context.

  • AD 850 – 1050

AD 850 – 1050

History

When Charlemagne began to build the Pfalz at Ingelheim he had the needed land (crown estate) at his disposal. The site had already standing settlement structures as well as a sacral centre. Some further characteristics include the agricultural advantages, the favourable topography for traffic and transport, as well as the close proximity to the Episcopal town of Mainz.16

Charlemagne and his son Ludwig I used the Pfalz repeatedly.17 In 840, Ludwig I (born 778) Fig. 8 died on an island in the River Rhine near Ingelheim.18 His kingdom was divided in the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Ludwig II (ca 806–876) received East Francia (incl. Ingelheim), which was defined as “everything the other side of the Rhine, as well as the towns and districts of Speyer, Worms and Mainz this side of the Rhine”.19

Fig. 8: Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826, Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Credit: wolpertinger [PD‐Art (PD‐old default)], via Wikimedia Commons

Fig. 8: Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826, Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Credit: wolpertinger [PD‐Art (PD‐old default)], via Wikimedia Commons

During the later Carolingian period, the Pfalz lost some of its importance, but began to be used again more regularly as a residence by the Ottonians. There are 33 royal visits documented from the reigns of Henry I (919–936) to Henry II (1002–1024). It was Otto III (980–1002) Fig. 9, crowned already as a child, who used the Pfalz with his mother Theophano (ca 960–991) and his grandmother Adelaide (931/932–999) particularly frequently.20 This is mainly due to its proximity to Mainz, which was the seat of archbishop Willigis (ca 940–1011), the benefactor of Otto III .21

Fig. 9: Otto III from the Gospels of Otto III, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Credit: Meister der Reichenauer Schule [Public domain, PD‐Art (Yorck Project)], via Wikimedia Commons

Fig. 9: Otto III from the Gospels of Otto III, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Credit: Meister der Reichenauer Schule [Public domain, PD‐Art (Yorck Project)], via Wikimedia Commons

The early Saliens Konrad II (1024–1039) and Henry III (1039–1056) stayed at Ingelheim five times.22 The Pfalz had its last climax when Henry III celebrated his wedding with Agnes of Aquitaine (ca 1025–1077) in 1043.23 Fig. 10

Fig. 10: Henry III giving the ‘Golden book’ (Codex Aureus) to Mary, who is blessing Agnes of Aquitaine, Echternach illumination, ca 1045. Credit: Speyerer Evangeliar [Public domain, CC‐PD‐Mark], via Wikimedia Commons

Fig. 10: Henry III giving the ‘Golden book’ (Codex Aureus) to Mary, who is blessing Agnes of Aquitaine, Echternach illumination, ca 1045. Credit: Speyerer Evangeliar [Public domain, CC‐PD‐Mark], via Wikimedia Commons

One of the most important functions of a Pfalz is the provision of board and lodgings for the King and his entourage.24 However, the rise of the towns meant that most of the provisions were soon delivered through the growing markets. At the same time the power of the church increased and Ingelheim lost its dominant position to the neighbouring towns and bishops’ residencies.25

Archaeology

The construction of the Pfalz was started in the late 8th century, during the reign of Charlemagne on a terrace three kilometres away from the River Rhine, protected from flooding. The complex was designed as a closed, U-shaped structure measuring 145 × 110 m. However, the Pfalz was completed at the earliest in the 10th century. The structure shares some obvious characteristics with the architecture of Roman villas and palaces, providing a good example of the ’Renovatio imperii Romanorum’, the renewal of the Roman Empire under the Carolingian rulers.Fig. 7

The crescent-shaped east side Fig. 11, the single-nave apsis hall used as the royal hall (Aula regia) in the south-west Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 , the northern front as well as a chapel with three apses, a so-called Trikonchos were built during the reign of the Carolingians.Fig. 17 The main entrance to the Pfalz was located on the eastern side, which was at least two storeys high, with a representative facade, including six round towers.Fig. 18 The towers were used for the water supply of the Pfalz. The church of St Remigius, lying about 400 m away, has to be considered also when reconstructing the early medieval settlement complex. Fig. 19

Fig. 11: Pfalz at Ingelheim, 3D reconstruction of the crescent‐shaped east side. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Rekonstruktion: Archimedix GbR, H. Grewe

Fig. 11: Pfalz at Ingelheim, 3D reconstruction of the crescent‐shaped east side. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Rekonstruktion: Archimedix GbR, H. Grewe

Fig. 12: Pfalz at Ingelheim, 3D reconstruction of the Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Rekonstruktion: Archimedix GbR, H. Grewe

Fig. 12: Pfalz at Ingelheim, 3D reconstruction of the Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Rekonstruktion: Archimedix GbR, H. Grewe

Fig. 13: Pfalz at Ingelheim, 3D reconstruction of the Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Rekonstruktion: Archimedix GbR, H. Grewe

Fig. 13: Pfalz at Ingelheim, 3D reconstruction of the Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Rekonstruktion: Archimedix GbR, H. Grewe

Fig. 14: Pfalz at Ingelheim, 3D reconstruction of the Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Rekonstruktion: Archimedix GbR, H. Grewe

Fig. 14: Pfalz at Ingelheim, 3D reconstruction of the Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Rekonstruktion: Archimedix GbR, H. Grewe

Fig. 15: Pfalz at Ingelheim, Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west today. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Klaus Benz

Fig. 15: Pfalz at Ingelheim, Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west today. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Klaus Benz

Fig. 16: Pfalz at Ingelheim, Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west today. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Michael Schlotterbeck

Fig. 16: Pfalz at Ingelheim, Aula regia single‐nave apsis hall in the south‐west today. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Michael Schlotterbeck

Fig. 17: Pfalz at Ingelheim, chapel with three apses, the so‐called Trikonchos. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 17: Pfalz at Ingelheim, chapel with three apses, the so‐called Trikonchos. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 18: Pfalz at Ingelheim, ‘Heidesheimer Tor’ area. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Michael Schlotterbeck

Fig. 18: Pfalz at Ingelheim, ‘Heidesheimer Tor’ area. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Michael Schlotterbeck

Fig. 19: Ingelheim, church of St Remigius today. Credit: Momo [GFDL, CC‐BY‐SA‐3.0‐migrated], via Wikimedia Commons

Fig. 19: Ingelheim, church of St Remigius today. Credit: Momo [GFDL, CC‐BY‐SA‐3.0‐migrated], via Wikimedia Commons

Before 900, the Trikonchos was replaced by a larger chapel with only one apse. In the 10th century Fig. 20, there is evidence for building works in the Aula regia. An additional church building with cross-shaped floor plan was built at the southern flank of the complex. Today it is called ‘Saalkirche’, with reference to its location in the ‘Ingelheimer Saal’ area. The complex reached its closed U-shaped structure only now although the design had been established during the Carolingian period.Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Reinforcements along the walls and the excavation of a ditch are evidence for some initial defensive measures. A full fortification of the complex, however, happened only in the 12th century as part of the expansion of the Pfalz. 26 Fig. 23

Fig. 20: Pfalz at Ingelheim, larger chapel with one apse replacing the Trikonchos. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 20: Pfalz at Ingelheim, larger chapel with one apse replacing the Trikonchos. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 21: Pfalz at Ingelheim, church building with cross‐shaped floor plan at the southern flank of the complex, today called ‘Saalkirche’. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 21: Pfalz at Ingelheim, church building with cross‐shaped floor plan at the southern flank of the complex, today called ‘Saalkirche’. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 22: Pfalz at Ingelheim, ‘Saalkirche’ today. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Ralph Rainer Steffens

Fig. 22: Pfalz at Ingelheim, ‘Saalkirche’ today. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Ralph Rainer Steffens

Fig. 23: ‘Pfalz’ at Ingelheim, in green: fortification and expansion of the complex. Credit: Forschungsstelle Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, modified

Fig. 23: ‘Pfalz’ at Ingelheim, in green: fortification and expansion of the complex. Credit: Forschungsstelle Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, modified

Art and Architecture

The Pfalz at Ingelheim is an important site for the history of both art and architecture. Some of the walls are still preserved above ground today. The floor plan of the Ottonian Pfalz has been passed down through the generations, as the remains stayed in the local awareness through subsequent use. Further details have been recovered through the monument preservation measurements in the last years.27 Fig. 24

Fig. 24: Pfalz at Ingelheim, the floor plan has been passed down through the generations. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Alfons Rath, bearb. Masswerke GbR, H. Grewe u. K. Matz

Fig. 24: Pfalz at Ingelheim, the floor plan has been passed down through the generations. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Alfons Rath, bearb. Masswerke GbR, H. Grewe u. K. Matz

The architectural concept for the Pfalz under the Carolingians took up the idea of the ‘Renovatio imperii Romanorum’, the renewal of the Roman Empire. Some of the buildings, their respective positions and architectural features are based on the architecture of Roman villas and palaces. Especially the crescent-shaped eastern building with the inner colonnade and the royal hall (Aula regia) with its polychrome painted walls and the opus sectile floor made with marble and porphyry should be mentioned at this point. The Carolingian Pfalz-church with its three apses is based on byzantine church architecture.28 The overall concept of the Pfalz at Ingelheim is unique, and was not taken up by medieval architecture in general.29

Numerous architectural features like capitals, columns and an impost have survived.30 A relief representation dating to the 8th century was used as spolia in the building of the ‘Burgkirche’ at Ober-Ingelheim. The piece originally belonged to the Pfalz. It is 44 cm high and 64 cm wide and shows a winged mare, her suckling foal, a jumping lion and parts of a further lion, all framed by vine tendrils. 31 Fig. 25

Fig. 25: Ober‐Ingelheim, Burgkirche, relief showing a winged mare, her suckling foal, a jumping lion and part of a further lion, all framed by vine tendrils (here copy at Museum bei der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, original at Landesmuseum Mainz). Credit: Museum bei der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 25: Ober‐Ingelheim, Burgkirche, relief showing a winged mare, her suckling foal, a jumping lion and part of a further lion, all framed by vine tendrils (here copy at Museum bei der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, original at Landesmuseum Mainz). Credit: Museum bei der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

An outstanding smaller find is the copper strap end with a fire-gilded surface measuring 8.9 x 1.5 cm. The end fitting of the belt shows two mythical creatures and leafy tendrils. The decoration of the strap end is based on the so-called Tassilo Chalice style, and dates the object to the last quarter of the 8th or the early 9th century.32 Fig. 26

Fig. 26: Fire‐gilded end fitting of a belt, showing two mythical creatures. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Michael Schlotterbeck

Fig. 26: Fire‐gilded end fitting of a belt, showing two mythical creatures. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Michael Schlotterbeck

International connections

Sebastian Münster (1488–1552), who was born in Ingelheim, mentions that columns were brought to Ingelheim from Ravenna under Charlemagne in his ‘Cosmographia’.33 This statement corresponds with an account in the ‘Annales de Gestis Caroli Magni Imperatoris’ written by Poeta Saxo, mentioning columns from Ravenna and Rome being brought to Ingelheim.34 Both sources probably refer to Einhard (ca 770–840), who wrote in the ‘Vita Karoli Magni’, that Charlemagne had columns from Rome and Ravenna brought to Aachen.35 Fig. 27 Fig. 11 Fig. 28 There is some evidence corroborating these claims for Ingelheim based on archaeological findings, but other spolia probably came from Roman ruins in the area which were still open during the building phase of the Pfalz. 36 In this context the stone relief from the ‘Burgkirche’ at Ober-Ingelheim has to be considered as it is thought to stem from Lombard craftsmanship.37 Fig. 25

Fig. 27: ‘Pfalz’ at Ingelheim, reconstruction of the crescent-shaped building. Credit: Maßwerke GbR, Forschungsstelle Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 27: ‘Pfalz’ at Ingelheim, reconstruction of the crescent-shaped building. Credit: Maßwerke GbR, Forschungsstelle Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 28: Pfalz at Ingelheim, capital at the Landesmuseum Mainz. Credit: © GDKE – Landesmuseum Mainz (Ursula Rudischer)

Fig. 28: Pfalz at Ingelheim, capital at the Landesmuseum Mainz. Credit: © GDKE – Landesmuseum Mainz (Ursula Rudischer)

Charlemagne initiated the building of both the Pfalz at Ingelheim and in Nijmegen which can be corroborated by archaeological evidence and by Einhard38 in his ‘Vita Karoli Magni’. The monk Rahewin (died before 1177)39, mentions building works carried out at both sites under Frederick I (Barbarossa, ca 1122–1190) in his ‘Gesta Frederici’.40

Charles IV’s stay at the Pfalz in Ingelheim in 1354 is the last verified stay of a regent. He founded a monastery of the Canons Regular, which functioned as a branch of the Monastery of Karlshof in the New Town of Prague.41

The church of St George in Kostoľany pod Tribečom is renowned for its impressive wall paintings. Although archaeological excavations brought to light painted lime mortar at Ingelheim dating to the late 8th century, the panegyrical descriptions by the writer Ermoldus Nigellus (died ca 838?) of the paintings in the Pfalz cannot be compellingly confirmed by archaeological evidence.42 Fig. 29

Fig. 29: ‘Pfalz’ at Ingelheim, wall plaster. Credit: Forschungsstelle Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

Fig. 29: ‘Pfalz’ at Ingelheim, wall plaster. Credit: Forschungsstelle Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim

The Roman vici in Velzeke and Ingelheim both belonged to the hinterland of two larger towns, Bavay (France, Bagacum) and Mainz (Mogontiacum) respectively. During the 10th century, both Velzeke and Ingelheim had important churches. The large imperial synod in 948 for example took place in the church of St Remigius in IngelheimFig. 19, and was attended by the Kings Otto I and Ludwig IV, the papal legate Bishop Marinus of Bomarzo, and 32 other bishops from both Kingdoms.43

A gold coin, showing Charlemagne in the style of a Roman emperor with a Paludamentum (the emperor’s cape) and a laurel wreath was found in Ingelheim with the inscription on the front saying D(ominus) N(oster) KARLUS IMP AUG REX F(rancorum) ET L(angobardorum). The back of the coin shows a gate with the inscription Arelato. The solidus was made in Arles. It is the so far only known gold coin depicting Charlemagne. 44 Fig. 30

Fig. 30: Pfalz at Ingelheim, gold coin made in Arles. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Michael Schlotterbeck

Fig. 30: Pfalz at Ingelheim, gold coin made in Arles. Credit: Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, photo Michael Schlotterbeck

The humanist and geographer Sebastian Münster (1488–1552), born in Ingelheim, left behind an early portrait of his home town in his ‘Cosmographia’, as well as a depiction of Arles.45 Fig. 31 Fig. 32

Fig. 31: Sebastian Münster, ‘Cosmographia’, depiction of Arles, edition of 1545, Düsseldorf, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf. Credit: Sebastian Münster [CC-PD-Mark, PD-old-100-1923] via Wikimedia Commons, modified

Fig. 31: Sebastian Münster, ‘Cosmographia’, depiction of Arles, edition of 1545, Düsseldorf, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf. Credit: Sebastian Münster [CC-PD-Mark, PD-old-100-1923] via Wikimedia Commons, modified

Fig. 32: Sebastiana Münster, ‘Cosmographia’, depiction of Ingelheim, edition of 1550. Credit: Sebastian Münster, Michael Schmalenstroer [CC-PD-Mark] via Wikimedia Commons

Fig. 32: Sebastiana Münster, ‘Cosmographia’, depiction of Ingelheim, edition of 1550. Credit: Sebastian Münster, Michael Schmalenstroer [CC-PD-Mark] via Wikimedia Commons

A number of rich graves containing weapons and riding equipment dating to the 8th and 9th centuries were found in Biskupija-Crkvina. The fire-gilded copper strap end found at Ingelheim might have been worn on the belt of a rich contemporary of the deceased in the aforementioned cemetery.46 Fig. 26

The church of St Laurentius in Ename is a surviving relic dating back to the Ottonian period. The integration of the larger Pfalz-church (‘Saalkirche’) into the overall complex of the Pfalz at Ingelheim dates to the same time.47 Fig. 22

References

16 The royal ownership can be clarified, as the document (RI I n 768, 19 December 822) shows that the Church of St Remigius was given to the newly established diocese of Würzburg in the early 740s by Karlmann (before 717–754).
Cf.
Classen, Peter, ‘Die Geschichte der Königspfalz Ingelheim bis zur Verpfändung an Kurpfalz 1375′, in Autenrieth, Johanne (ed.), Ingelheim am Rhein, Ingelheim, Stuttgart, 1964, pp. 89-91
‘Denkmaltourismus. Stadtgebiet Ingelheim. St. Remigiuskirche’, http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de/denkmaltourismus_stadtgebiet_02.php, accessed 24 May 2013
‘Nicht nur eine Kaiserpfalz Karls des Großen – Ingelheim entdeckt seine Anfänge im Frühmittelalter’, http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de/forschungsstelle_pressemitteilungen_01_ausgrabung_st_remigius_2013.php, accessed 21 April 2013

17 For statistics of royal stays:
Grewe, Holger, ‘Visualisierung von Herrschaft in der Architektur. Die Pfalz Ingelheim als Bedeutungsträger im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert’, in Burkhardt, Stefan, Metz, Thomas, Schneidmüller, Bernd and Weinfurter, Stefan (eds), Staufisches Kaisertum im 12. Jahrhundert. Konzepte – Netzwerke – Politische Praxis, Regensburg, 2010, pp. 398f.
‘Herrscheraufenthalte in der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim zwischen 774 und 1190. Archäologie. Pfalz der Staufer. Geschichte’, http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de/archaeologie_pfalz_der_staufer_01.php, accessed 22 April 2013

18 For the death of Ludwig I:
Classen, Peter, ‘Die Geschichte der Königspfalz Ingelheim bis zur Verpfändung an Kurpfalz 1375′, in Autenrieth, Johanne (ed.), Ingelheim am Rhein, Ingelheim, Stuttgart, 1964, pp. 98f.
Kohtz, Harald, ‘Ingelheim als Schauplatz historischen Geschehens. Aus Annalen, Chroniken, Biographien, Briefen und Geschichtsdarstellungen’, in Lachenal, François and Weise, Harald T. (eds), Ingelheim am Rhein 774-1974. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Ingelheim am Rhein, 1974, pp. 236-238

19 For the division of kingdom in 843: Annales Bertiniani 29f.: ‘Ultra Rhenum omnia, citra Renum vero Nemetum, Vangium et Mogontiam civitates pagosque: Annales Bertiniani’, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum ex Monumentis Germaniae Historicis recusi, Hannover, 1883, http://www.dmgh.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb00000758_meta:titlePage.html?sortIndex=010:070:0005:010:00:00, accessed 24 May 2013
Classen, Peter, ‘Die Geschichte der Königspfalz Ingelheim bis zur Verpfändung an Kurpfalz 1375′, in Autenrieth, Johanne (ed.), Ingelheim am Rhein, Ingelheim, Stuttgart, 1964, p. 102

20 For statistics of royal stays:
Grewe, Holger, ‘Visualisierung von Herrschaft in der Architektur. Die Pfalz Ingelheim als Bedeutungsträger im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert’, in Burkhardt, Stefan, Metz, Thomas, Schneidmüller, Bernd and Weinfurter, Stefan (eds), Staufisches Kaisertum im 12. Jahrhundert. Konzepte – Netzwerke – Politische Praxis, Regensburg, 2010, pp. 398f.
‘Herrscheraufenthalte in der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim zwischen 774 und 1190. Archäologie. Pfalz der Staufer. Geschichte’, http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de/archaeologie_pfalz_der_staufer_01.php, accessed 22 April 2013

21 For Otto III in Ingelheim:
Classen, Peter, ‘Die Geschichte der Königspfalz Ingelheim bis zur Verpfändung an Kurpfalz 1375′, in Autenrieth, Johanne (ed.), Ingelheim am Rhein, Ingelheim, Stuttgart, 1964, pp. 110-112
Binding, Günther, Deutsche Königspfalzen. Von Karl dem Großen bis Friedrich II. (765–1240), Darmstadt, 1996, p. 104

22 For statistics of royal stays:
Grewe, Holger, ‘Visualisierung von Herrschaft in der Architektur. Die Pfalz Ingelheim als Bedeutungsträger im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert’, in Burkhardt, Stefan, Metz, Thomas, Schneidmüller, Bernd and Weinfurter, Stefan (eds), Staufisches Kaisertum im 12. Jahrhundert. Konzepte – Netzwerke – Politische Praxis, Regensburg, 2010, pp. 398f.
‘Herrscheraufenthalte in der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim zwischen 774 und 1190. Archäologie. Pfalz der Staufer. Geschichte’, http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de/archaeologie_pfalz_der_staufer_01.php, accessed 22 April 2013

23 For the wedding in 1043:
Classen, Peter, ‘Die Geschichte der Königspfalz Ingelheim bis zur Verpfändung an Kurpfalz 1375′, in Autenrieth, Johanne (ed.), Ingelheim am Rhein, Ingelheim, Stuttgart, 1964, pp. 116-118
Kohtz, Harald, ‘Ingelheim als Schauplatz historischen Geschehens. Aus Annalen, Chroniken, Biographien, Briefen und Geschichtsdarstellungen’, in Lachenal, François and Weise, Harald T. (eds), Ingelheim am Rhein 774-1974. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Ingelheim am Rhein, 1974, pp. 244f.

24 The ‘Pfalz’ as economic centre: Binding, Günther, Deutsche Königspfalzen. Von Karl dem Großen bis Friedrich II. (765–1240), Darmstadt, 1996, pp. 46-58

25 A document dating to 835 mentions a man called Agano, ‘exactor palatii Ingelenheim’, a member of the administration of the ‘Pfalz’. More details about this document kept in the monastery Prüm:
Classen, Peter, ‘Die Geschichte der Königspfalz Ingelheim bis zur Verpfändung an Kurpfalz 1375′, in Autenrieth, Johanne (ed.), Ingelheim am Rhein, Ingelheim, Stuttgart, 1964, pp. 100f.
Grewe, Holger, ‘Ingelheim’, in Beck, Heinrich, Geuenich, Dieter and Steuer, Heiko (eds), Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, vol. 15, Berlin, New York, 2000, p. 421
Geißler, Hartmut, ‘Die Verpfändungen der Ingelheimer Reichseinkünfte’, http://www.ingelheimer-geschichte.de/index.php?id=152, accessed 27 April 2013

26 Selected publications on the archaeology of the ‘Pfalz’:
Grewe, Holger, ‘Die Königspfalz zu Ingelheim am Rhein’, in Stiegemann, Christoph and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), 799 – Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit. Beiträge zum Katalog der Ausstellung Paderborn 1999, Mainz, 1999, pp. 142-151
Grewe, Holger, ‘Die Ausgrabungen in der Königspfalz zu Ingelheim am Rhein’, in Fenske, Lutz, Jarnut, Jörg and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), Splendor palatii. Neue Forschungen zu Paderborn und anderen Pfalzen der Karolingerzeit, Deutsche Königspfalzen, vol. 5 = Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Institutes für Geschichte, vol. 11/5, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 155-174
Grewe, Holger, Historical Tour through the Kaiserpfalz area, Ingelheim, 2012
See also the webpage of the Forschungsstelle Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim (research centre): http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de, accessed 23 May 2013

27 Ferch, Katharina, ‘Denkmal Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim: Unsichtbares sichtbar machen’, Archäologie in Deutschland, 5, 2009, pp. 66f.
Ferch, Katharina, ‘Das Unsichtbare sichtbar machen – Denkmalpflege in der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim”, Berichte zur Archäologie in Rheinhessen und Umgebung, 2, 2009, pp. 54-59
Ferch, Katharina and Peisker, Katharina, ‘1200 Jahre alte Geschichte wieder sichtbar – Die Kaiserpfalz in Ingelheim’, Restauro, 115/7, 2009, pp. 427f.

28 Selected publications on the archaeology of the Pfalz:
Grewe, Holger, ‘Die Königspfalz zu Ingelheim am Rhein’, in Stiegemann, Christoph and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), 799 – Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit. Beiträge zum Katalog der Ausstellung Paderborn 1999, Mainz, 1999, pp. 142-151
Grewe, Holger, ‘Die Ausgrabungen in der Königspfalz zu Ingelheim am Rhein’, in Fenske, Lutz, Jarnut, Jörg and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), Splendor palatii. Neue Forschungen zu Paderborn und anderen Pfalzen der Karolingerzeit, Deutsche Königspfalzen, vol. 5 = Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Institutes für Geschichte, vol. 11/5, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 155-174
Grewe, Holger, Historical Tour through the Kaiserpfalz area, Ingelheim, 2012
See also the webpage of the Forschungsstelle Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim (research centre): http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de, accessed 23 May 2013

29 Untermann, Matthias, ‘Karolingische Architektur als Vorbild’, in Stiegemann, Christoph and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), 799 – Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit. Beiträge zum Katalog der Ausstellung Paderborn 1999, Mainz, 1999, p. 167

30 For architectural features:
Böhme, Horst Wolfgang, ‘Ingelheim 774-1974. Ausstellungen. Frühzeit. Karl der Große und sein Jahrhundert. Neuzeit’, in Lachenal, François and Weise, Harald T. (eds), Ingelheim am Rhein 774-1974. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Ingelheim am Rhein, 1974, pp. 424f. Nr. 67-82
Grewe, Holger, ‘Monolithische Säule’, ‘Säulenbasis’, ‘Kompositkapitell’, ‘Korinthisches Kapitell’ and ‘Gebälkfragmente’, in Stiegemann, Christoph and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), 799. Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit. Karl der Große und Papst Leo III. in Paderborn. Katalog der Ausstellung Paderborn 1999, Mainz, 1999, pp. 100-103, II. 59-63
Brandenburg, Hugo, ‘Zwei Marmor-Kapitelle aus der karolingischen Pfalz Ingelheim im Landesmuseum Mainz. Zur Frage der Spolienverwendung im frühen Mittelalter’, in Mattern, Torsten (ed.), Munus. Festschrift für Hans Wiegartz, Münster, 2000, pp. 47-60

31 For the relief:
Behrens, Gustav, ‘Zu dem karolingischen Relief aus Ober-Ingelheim’, Germania, 15, 1931, pp. 40-42;
Böhme, Horst Wolfgang, ‘Ingelheim 774-1974. Ausstellungen. Frühzeit. Karl der Große und sein Jahrhundert. Neuzeit’, in Lachenal, François and Weise, Harald T. (eds), Ingelheim am Rhein 774-1974. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Ingelheim am Rhein, 1974, p. 424 Nr. 67
Kohtz, Harald, ‘Forschen – formulieren – folgern. Die Ingelheimer Kaiserpfalz – wissenschaftlich gesehen’, in Lachenal, François and Weise, Harald T. (eds), Ingelheim am Rhein 774-1974. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Ingelheim am Rhein, 1974, pp. 287-289. Kept today at the Landesmuseum Mainz, a copy is part of the exhibition at the Museum bei der Kaiserpfalz in Ingelheim.

32 Grewe, Holger, ‘Geschichte und Neubeginn der archäologischen Forschung in der Königspfalz zu Ingelheim am Rhein’, Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica, 30, 1998, pp. 182f.
Grewe, Holger, ‘Eine Riemenzunge mit Tassilokelchstil-Dekor aus der Königspfalz zu Ingelheim am Rhein’, in Ericsson, Ingolf and Losert, Hans (eds), Aspekte der Archäologie des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit. Festschrift für Walter Sage, Bamberger Schriften zur Archäologie des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, vol. 1, Bonn, 2003, pp. 167-173
‘Denkmaltourismus. Fundstücke. Riemenzunge’, http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de/denkmaltourismus_fundstuecke_02.php, accessed 21 April 2013

33 Münster, Sebastian, Cosmographey oder beschreibung aller Länder, Herrschafften, fürnem[m]sten Stetten: geschichten, gebreuche[n], handtierungen etc, Basel, 1567 DCCIX http://dl.ub.uni-freiburg.de/diglit/muenster1567, accessed 23 May 2013

34 Poeta Saxo 274 f.: ‘Poetae Saxonis Annalium De Gestis Caroli Magni Imperatoris’, in Pertz, Georgius Heinricus (ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica, vol. 1, Hannover, 1826, pp. 274f., http://www.dmgh.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb00000868_00259.html?zoom=0.50&sortIndex=010:050:0001:010:00:00, accessed 23 May 2013

35 Einhard chapter 26: Einhardi Vita Karoli Magni, http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/ein.html, accessed 22 April 2013

36 Petrographical analysis has shown that the stone used for making one of the columns might have originated in the Alps or the Apennine Mountains (unpublished).
For regional orign:
Grewe, Holger, ‘Monolithische Säule’, in Stiegemann, Christoph and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), 799. Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit. Karl der Große und Papst Leo III. in Paderborn. Katalog der Ausstellung Paderborn 1999, Mainz: Philipp von Zabern 1999, pp. 100f. II.59
Grewe, Holger, ‘Die Ausgrabungen in der Königspfalz zu Ingelheim am Rhein’, in Fenske, Lutz, Jarnut, Jörg and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), Splendor palatii. Neue Forschungen zu Paderborn und anderen Pfalzen der Karolingerzeit, Deutsche Königspfalzen, vol. 5 = Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Institutes für Geschichte, vol. 11/5, Göttingen, 2001, p. 160

37 For the relief:
Behrens, Gustav, ‘Zu dem karolingischen Relief aus Ober-Ingelheim’, Germania, 15, 1931, pp. 40-42
Böhme, Horst Wolfgang, ‘Ingelheim 774-1974. Ausstellungen. Frühzeit. Karl der Große und sein Jahrhundert. Neuzeit’, in Lachenal, François and Weise, Harald T. (eds), Ingelheim am Rhein 774-1974. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Ingelheim am Rhein, 1974, p. 424 Nr. 67
Kohtz, Harald, ‘Forschen – formulieren – folgern. Die Ingelheimer Kaiserpfalz – wissenschaftlich gesehen’, in Lachenal, François and Weise, Harald T. (eds), Ingelheim am Rhein 774-1974. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Ingelheim am Rhein, 1974, pp. 287-289

38 Einhard chapter 17: Einhardi Vita Karoli Magni, http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/ein.html, accessed 22 April 2013

39 Rahewin Liber IV, Capitulum LXXXVI: Otto of Freising (and Ragewin) Gesta Friderici imperatoris Liber IV, http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/ottofreising/4.html, accessed 23 May 2013

40 Hotz, Walter, Pfalzen und Burgen der Stauferzeit. Geschichte und Gestalt, Darmstadt, 1981, pp. 38-43
Grewe, Holger, ‘Visualisierung von Herrschaft in der Architektur. Die Pfalz Ingelheim als Bedeutungsträger im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert’, in Burkhardt, Stefan, Metz, Thomas, Schneidmüller, Bernd and Weinfurter, Stefan (eds), Staufisches Kaisertum im 12. Jahrhundert. Konzepte – Netzwerke – Politische Praxis, Regensburg, 2010, p. 386
Geißler, Hartmut, ‘Ingelheim von der Stauferzeit bis zur Mitte des 14. Jahrhunderts’, http://www.ingelheimer-geschichte.de/index.php?id=124, accessed 21 April 2013

41 Classen, Peter, ‘Die Geschichte der Königspfalz Ingelheim bis zur Verpfändung an Kurpfalz 1375′, in Autenrieth, Johanne (ed.), Ingelheim am Rhein, Ingelheim, Stuttgart, 1964, pp. 138-140
Geißler, Hartmut, ‘Ingelheim zur Zeit Karls IV. Verpachtungen und Augustiner-Chorherrenstift’, http://www.ingelheimer-geschichte.de/index.php?id=139, accessed 21 April 2013
Geißler, Hartmut, ‘Das Augustiner-Chorherrenstift (‘Karlsmünster’) in Ingelheim’, http://www.ingelheimer-geschichte.de/index.php?id=140, accessed 21 April 2013

42 Ermoldus Nigellus liber IV: ‘Ermoldi Nigelli carmina’, in Dümmler, Ernst (ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Poeta Latini aevi Carolini, vol. II, Berlin, 1884, http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00000832/image_3, 27 May 2013
Lammers, Walther, ‘Ein karolingisches Bildprogramm in der Aula regia von Ingelheim’, in Festschrift für Hermann Heimpel zum 70. Geburtstag am 19. September 1971, vol. 3, Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte 36/III, Göttingen, 1972, pp. 226-289
Grewe, Holger, ‘Stuckfragmente’, ‘Wand- und Bodenplatten’ and ‘Wandputz’, in Stiegemann, Christoph and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), 799. Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit. Karl der Große und Papst Leo III. in Paderborn. Katalog der Ausstellung Paderborn 1999, Mainz, 1999, pp. 103-107 II.64-66
Geißler, Hartmut, ‘Ermoldi Nigelli Carmen in honorem Ludovici’, http://www.ingelheimer-geschichte.de/index.php?id=89, accessed 22 May 2013

43 The synode of 948 in the church of St Remigius: Fuhrmann, Horst, ‘Die Synoden von Ingelheim’, in Autenrieth, Johanne (ed.), Ingelheim am Rhein, Ingelheim, Stuttgart, 1964, pp. 159-164
Binding, Günther, Deutsche Königspfalzen. Von Karl dem Großen bis Friedrich II. (765–1240), Darmstadt, 1996, p. 111
Grewe, Holger, Historical Tour through the Kaiserpfalz area, Ingelheim, 2012, p. 5

44 Martin, Peter-Huge, ‘Solidus Karls des Großen’, in Stiegemann, Christoph and Wemhoff, Matthias (eds), 799. Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit. Karl der Große und Papst Leo III. in Paderborn. Katalog der Ausstellung Paderborn 1999, Mainz, 1999, pp. 68f. II.26
Grewe, Holger, ‘Goldmünze Karls des Großen aus der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim’, in Wamers, Egon, Die Macht des Silbers. Karolingische Schätze im Norden. Katalog zur Ausstellung im Archäologischen Museum Frankfurt und im Dom-Museum Hildesheim, Regensburg, 2005, pp. 77f.
‘Denkmaltourismus. Fundstücke. Goldmünze Karls des Großen’, http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de/denkmaltourismus_fundstuecke_01.php, accessed 21 April 2013

45 Münster, Sebastian, Cosmographey oder beschreibung aller Länder, Herrschafften, fürnem[m]sten Stetten: geschichten, gebreuche[n], handtierungen etc, Basel, 1567, CXVI; DCCIX, http://dl.ub.uni-freiburg.de/diglit/muenster1567, accessed 23 May 2013
Geißler, Hartmut, ‘Sebastian Münster – der größte Sohn Ingelheims’, http://www.ingelheimer-geschichte.de/index.php?id=92, accessed 21 April 2013

46 Grewe, Holger, ‘Eine Riemenzunge mit Tassilokelchstil-Dekor aus der Königspfalz zu Ingelheim am Rhein’, in Ericsson, Ingolf and Losert, Hans (eds), Aspekte der Archäologie des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit. Festschrift für Walter Sage, Bamberger Schriften zur Archäologie des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, vol. 1, Bonn, 2003, pp. 167-173
‘Denkmaltourismus. Fundstücke. Riemenzunge’, http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de/denkmaltourismus_fundstuecke_02.php, accessed 21 April 2013

47 Grewe, Holger, ‘Neue Ergebnisse zur Sakraltophographie der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Kreis Mainz-Bingen’, Archäologie in Rheinland-Pfalz, 2004, pp. 86-88
‘Archäologie. Pfalz der Ottonen. Archäologie’, http://www.kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de/archaeologie_pfalz_der_ottonen_02.php, accessed 21 April 2013

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